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FAQs

Find accurate information, and dispel rumors about the Honolulu Rail Transit Project, by checking the Rail FAQs.

Rail FAQs

The purpose of the Honolulu Rail Transit Project is to provide high-capacity rapid transit in the highly congested east-west transportation corridor between Kapolei and UH Mānoa, as specified in the O‘ahu Regional Transportation Plan (ORTP) (O‘ahu MPO 2007). The Project is intended to provide faster, more reliable public transportation service in the study corridor than can be achieved with buses operating in congested mixed-flow traffic, to provide reliable mobility in areas of the study corridor where people of limited income and an aging population live, and to serve rapidly developing areas of the study corridor. The Project will also provide additional transit capacity, an alternative to private automobile travel, and improve transit links within the corridor.

Construction of the first segment of the Project, from East Kapolei to Aloha Stadium is completed. Comprehensive testing is currently being performed and this portion of the Project will soon be turned over to the City’s Department of Transportation Services (DTS) – hopefully in early 2023.

Construction of the second segment is nearly completed. This segment, from Aloha Stadium past the Airport to Middle Street, is expected to be turned over to DTS in early 2025.

The “City Center” section of the Project, from Middle Street along Dillingham Boulevard and through downtown Honolulu to its temporary terminus at the Civic Center Station, is estimated to be complete by 2031.

HART is optimistic about the future of the Honolulu Rail Transit Project (the Project). Construction on the first 10 miles of the Project is complete and final testing is underway. Hopefully, that portion of the Project will be open to the public in early 2023. Construction of the next 5 miles of the Project, from Aloha Stadium past the Airport to Middle Street, is progressing well, with an anticipated completion in early 2025. The Project is ready to start moving into the “City Center segment”, which is the more congested areas along Dillingham Boulevard and through downtown Honolulu. Two separate utility relocations were recently awarded – one for the Dillingham corridor and the second from Iwilei through downtown to Cooke Street – and construction work will be underway soon (see separate FAQs about utility relocations). As the utility relocation work is completed, the rail guideway and station construction will begin in these areas.

Due to an anticipated funding shortfall for the overall Project, HART submitted a 2022 Recovery Plan to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) on June 3, 2022. The 2022 Recovery Plan proposes a truncated project scope with an interim terminus at the Civic Center Station, located at the intersection of Halekauwila Street and South Street, and a deferral of the Pearl Highlands Parking Garage. HART remains committed to completing the full scope of the project to the Ala Moana Transit Center in a subsequent phase of the project. HART is optimistic the Recovery Plan will be approved by the FTA.

If a situation exists whereby the Project cannot be completed in accordance with the original approved plans (for example, a shortfall in identified funding necessary to complete the Project), a requirement of the Federal Grant Agreement between the City (HART) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is the submission of a Recovery Plan describing the actions necessary to complete the Project.

Due to an anticipated funding shortfall for the overall Project, HART submitted a 2022 Recovery Plan to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) on June 3, 2022. The 2022 Recovery Plan proposes a truncated project scope with an interim terminus at the Civic Center Station, located at the intersection of Halekauwila Street and South Street, and a deferral of the Pearl Highlands Parking Garage. HART remains committed to completing the full scope of the project to the Ala Moana Transit Center in a subsequent phase of the project. HART is optimistic the Recovery Plan will be approved by the FTA.

The destination of reaching Ala Moana is important because of the location of the Ala Moana Transit Center, the City’s largest bus transit center. More than 1,500 daily bus routes pass through Ala Moana Transit Center, where rail riders will be able to easily transfer to frequent bus service and continue their trips to Waikiki, UH, Hawaii Kai or elsewhere.

Ala Moana is also the Locally Preferred Alternative as approved by the Honolulu City Council. Despite the proposed plan to have a temporary rail terminus at the Civic Center Station, the overall goal of reaching Ala Moana Transit Center does not change.

The goal is still for the rail project to reach Ala Moana Transit Center. When the temporary rail system terminus is at the Civic Center Station, enhanced bus service will be provided to get riders to their final destinations. The City’s Department of Transportation Services (DTS) operates TheBus and Handi-Van and will also be operating the rail system. Frequent bus service will be available for rail riders at both the Downtown Station and the Civic Center Station, some with direct bus service to Waikiki, UH and to the Ala Moana Transit Center, where connections to other buses can be made.

It is interesting that, in the original ridership forecast for the Project, only 10 percent of the anticipated rail passengers were expected to have Kakaako or Ala Moana as their final destinations – meaning that 90 percent of the anticipated passengers would have exited rail before, or at, the Civic Center Station or would have boarded a bus at the Ala Moana Transit Center to get to their final destinations. Boarding a bus at the Downtown Station or the Civic Center Station will provide very comparable transit service to those passengers whose travel extends beyond Ala Moana.

There are several reasons that a street-level rail system would not be feasible at this point of the Honolulu rail project, including:

  • One significant reason is that the rail system is powered via a “third rail”, which is literally a separate rail that runs alongside the tracks. The trains receive electricity from the third rail, which carries 750 volts of electricity. Having a street-level system would require significant barriers to protect the public from the dangers of the third rail, which is currently achieved with the elevated guideway system.
  • Another reason that a street-level system would be problematic is that the trains are expected to have approximate 6-minute headways (the time between trains) during peak hours of operation. That means, for a street-level system, certain intersections all along the route would need to be closed to traffic and pedestrians at least every 6 minutes for a train to pass. This would create additional traffic congestion on our streets that is avoided with the elevated guideway.

The planned 1,600-stall parking garage at the Pearl Highlands station will be deferred due to the excessive cost of building it at the originally planned location. However, HART and the City’s Department of Transportation Services (DTS) are committed to working together to find an alternative location for a garage. Several potential options have been discussed but much more research will need to be done before a plan can be developed.

In the meantime, DTS will add additional and enhanced bus service from North Shore and Central Oahu locations that will enable passengers to board the rail system at a planned bus transit center that will be built directly adjacent to the Pearl Highlands Station.

HART has, and continues to be, diligent in searching for ways to reduce the funding shortfall – and ultimately to get the Project to Ala Moana. Some ways that the shortfall is being addressed:

  • Internal Cost Reductions: HART continues to look for ways to reduce its internal costs, including ways to improve efficiencies of internal processes, eliminate redundancies and better manage costs. An example is a 2021 streamlining of the organizational structure that will save $150–200 million over the remaining life of the project.
  • Efficient Construction: Ways of reducing construction-related costs are also being evaluated. An example is the decision to implement a shift of a section of the guideway route along Dillingham Boulevard from the middle of the street to the mauka side, thereby eliminating the need to relocate certain utilities. This “mauka shift” will save approximately $150 million.
  • Risk Mitigation: Risk reduction actions have been implemented, and are evaluated on an on-going basis, which will reduce future costs of procurement. A good example of risk mitigation is the work by HART to get the utility designs completed and approved before awarding the two recent utility relocation contracts. This work will save construction costs and also shorten the work schedule, adding to the construction savings. In the past, HART had awarded contracts without approved final designs, which is a considerable risk to the contractors proposing on the construction work.
  • Seeking New Funding:
    • In 2022, HART received $70 million in federal COVID relief funds to partially address funding lost due to the pandemic.
    • In 2022, HART will begin receiving funding from a new Oahu-based Transient Accommodations Tax.
    • Other sources of funding will also be explored.

The Mauka Shift refers to a plan to move a section of the rail guideway from the center of Dillingham Boulevard to the mauka side of the street. This mauka shift saves time and money for the Project by eliminating the need to relocate certain utilities.

Currently there is a complex web of electricity, water, sewer and fiber optics lines that run under Dillingham Boulevard. There are also two 138-kilovolt power transmission lines above ground on either side of Dillingham Boulevard. On the makai side, there are also 12- and 48-kilovolt power lines. For HART to move all of these power lines underground would be extremely difficult as there is not enough room to provide the clearances needed to service existing utilities. Moving the guideway to the mauka side of the street eliminates the need to bury all of the power lines on the makai side and avoids the need to move other existing underground utilities, thereby improving the Project schedule and reducing costs by approximately $150 million.

“City Center” is a term used to describe the last construction phase of the Rail Project, comprised of the Dillingham Boulevard, Iwilei, Downtown and Kakaako areas. The “Utility Relocation” project refers to the relocation, or movement, of existing underground and/or overhead utilities along the rail alignment that conflict with the future location of the guideway columns.

The City Center Utility Relocation project will consist of (3) three separate contracts:

  • Downtown Utility Relocations: This project involves utility relocations through the downtown Honolulu area, beginning at Kaaahi Street, progressing along Nimitz Highway through downtown, and along Halekauwila Street to Cooke Street. A contract was awarded to Frank V. Coluccio Construction Company (FVCCC). Work on this project began in June 2022 and expected to be completed in September 2024.
  • Dillingham Utility Relocations: This project involves utility relocations along Dillingham Boulevard between Laumaka Street and Kaaahi Street. A contract was awarded to Nan, Inc. in August 2022. A Notice to Proceed is expected in October 2022, with actual construction expected to begin in early 2023. Completion of this work is expected in early 2026.
  • Ala Moana Utility Relocations: This project will involve utility relocations from Cooke Street in Kakaako to Kona Street near the Ala Moana Transit Center. A procurement for this work will begin at a later date.

About utility relocations work
Construction crews will “pothole” to confirm the location of the underground utilities, “jet grout” to control groundwater during construction, excavate and place new utility infrastructure, switch the services over to the new infrastructure, remove the old utility lines, and backfill and repave the street.

Yes, steel plates will likely be used in some areas. HART’s contractor for the Downtown Utility Relocations, Frank V. Coluccio Construction Company (FVCCC), will place cold mix asphalt around the edges of the steel plates to provide a smoother transition. Also, FVCCC will tack weld multiple road plates together to avoid an abrupt edge. This should reduce the noise from vehicles driving over steel plates.

The initial mobilization and potholing operations will be during the day between the hours of 8:30 am and 3:00 pm. The work following the potholing phase will take place in two shifts: daytime work from Monday-Saturday 8:30 am-3:00 pm and nights from Monday-Saturday 6:00 pm-5:00 am.

The Downtown Utility Relocation project contractor, Frank V. Coluccio Construction Company (FVCCC), will be holding virtual Business and Community meeting on the second Wednesday of each month, at 6:00 pm. These meetings will be held virtually via Zoom and requires pre-registration.

The public is welcome to sign-up for the FVCCC weekly eBlast: > Sign up

A separate community update meeting will be established for the Dillingham Utility Relocation project prior to the commencement of that construction. Visit HART Website for information.

Sign-up for the HART eBlast:
> Click here

A hammerhead is a cement “cap” that is built on the top of the rail guideway columns at the location of the rail stations. The hammerhead extends from the guideway column and supports the rail station platforms.

About the cracks in the hammerheads
Cracks in some of the hammerheads were first noticed in December 2018. The Engineer of Record subsequently inspected the cracks and determined the cracks were due to shrinkage, a common occurrence with concrete. A follow-up inspection occurred in 2020.

In early 2022, the hammerheads were inspected again, in anticipation of turning the first operating segment of the Project over to the City’s Department of Transportation Services (DTS). The inspection was performed via drone and the cracks appeared to have widened. In July 2022, more thorough inspections were conducted and measurements of the cracks were taken. There are four groups of structural engineers involved in determining the cause and the seriousness of the cracks. Currently, independent analyses are being performed. Findings from the analyses are expected in September 2022.

Next step to address the cracks in the hammerheads
There are four groups of structural engineers involved in determining the cause and the seriousness of the cracks. Currently, independent analyses are being performed. Findings from the analyses are expected in September 2022. Based on the conclusions reached, the original Engineer of Record will determine what remediation is required, which will be independently validated by third-party engineering consultants.

Trial Running is an intense and rigorous testing phase of all aspects of the trains, stations, communication systems, and train control systems and operations personnel over a minimum 90-day period. This is the last phase of testing before the rail system is ready to be placed into service for the public.


As part of the comprehensive testing of all aspects of the operations, Trial Running will include the simulation of many normal and emergency operating scenarios. Trial Running also includes a System Demonstration phase, wherein the system will be operated as if it was open to the public. A 98.5 percent system service availability, averaged over a 30 consecutive day period, must be achieved.


Upon completion of Trial Running, HART expects to transfer Operating Segment 1 to the City’s Department of Transportation Services (DTS) for the opening of service. It is anticipated this turn-over to DTS will occur in early 2023.

The trains are powered with electricity that is transmitted through a contact rail, known as the “third rail.” The third rail has 750 volts of electricity, about 100 times more powerful than electricity in a home, flowing through it at all times and is extremely dangerous. The third rail on the track segment from East Kapolei to Aloha Stadium is currently fully electrified and is “live”.

Anyone attempting to access the tracks is at extreme risk of death.

  • In late 2020, it was discovered that there was a misalignment of the wheels and rails in the double-crossovers (also known as “frogs”) due to the wheels being too narrow. As a precaution, speed restrictions were put in place for all trains traveling through the double-crossovers. An independent industry expert was engaged to evaluate the situation and recommend a solution. The recommendation, that was agreed to by HART, DTS and HDOT, included a short-term solution of performing a weld of the double-crossovers to fill the gap caused by the narrow wheels. The longer-term solution is to replace the wheels. The welding work has been completed and approved. The first replacement wheel-sets for the trains will be on-island in the fall of 2022. All trains will eventually be fitted with the new wheels.

  • It was also discovered that the track gauge in certain areas of the double crossovers was too tight. The tracks have been adjusted and the gauge issue has been resolved. Based on the work that has been performed, tested and approved, the speed restrictions for the trains has been lifted and normal testing operations are underway.

Benefits of the elevated guideway include an exclusive right-of-way, free from street-level hazards such as cars, pedestrians, bicyclists, and other modes of transportation along the east-west corridor. Grade separation is also necessary to maintain and support the goal of having a consistent and reliable schedule because train vehicles are not subject to street-level congestion, which can cause delays. An elevated guideway also minimizes the “transit footprint” of the system by minimizing the land that would be needed to build a street-level system in the midst of current traffic lanes.

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Project Status

Overall project completion % is based on the full 20 miles and 21 stations scheduled for 2031

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